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Research Development Workshops

2018

March | October/November

APC OCTOBER-NOVEMBER 2018 WORKSHOP: COLLATED ABSTRACTS

Luis Gimenez Amoros: Tracing the mbira sound archive in Zimbabwe

Tracing the Mbira Sound Archive in Zimbabwe analyses the revitalisation and repatriation of historical recordings from the largest sound archive in Africa, the International Library of African Music (ILAM). It provides a postcolonial study on the African sound archive divided into three historical periods: the colonial period offers a critical analysis on how ILAM classifies its music through ethnic and linguistic groups; the postcolonial period reconsiders postcolonial nationhood, new/old mobility and cultural border crossing in present Africa; and the recent period of repatriation focuses on the author’s revitalisation of the sound archive.

The main goal of this study is to reconsider the colonial demarcations of southern African mbira music provided by the International Library of African Music (ILAM). These mbira recordings reveal that the harmonic system used in different lamellophones (or mbiras) in southern Africa is musically related. The analysis of sound archives in Africa is an essential tool to envision the new ways in which African culture can be directed not only from postcolonial notions of nationhood or Afrocentric discourses but also for the necessity of bringing awareness of the circulation of musical cultures from and beyond colonial African borders.


Henry Fagan

This ‘trade hypothesis’, which was first outlined by Alan Smith in a 1969 article, theorised that trade between Rhonga groups and Europeans at Delagoa Bay greatly impacted the political and economic development of groups living in wider southern-eastern Africa between 1750 and 1830.  In 1978, building on Smith’s work, David Hedges developed his own argument. Where Smith had argued that an ivory trade was fundamental in initiating centralisation among the northern Nguni groups, Hedges argued the ivory trade was largely replaced by a trade in cattle by the 1790s. More recently, Linell Chewins has questioned aspects of Hedges’ theory, arguing African demand for brass was of major significance. In this paper I review the numerous configurations of the trade hypothesis and evaluate the extent to which trade might have facilitated the rise of the Zulu kingdom. 


Katie Garrun

This paper makes up chapter three of my larger thesis, and aims to introduce readers to the Five Hundred Year Archive project. This chapter documents the project from it's conceptual beginnings to the stage where it stands to date and focuses on describing chronologically and in detail the steps and processes in creating a complex digital archive of this nature.


Anette Hoffman: Sounds African

The paper I will present is part of the second chapter of my monograph on sound recordings that were produced with African POWs in German camps during World War I. 

The chapter engages with the recordings of the Congolese prisoner Albert Kudjabo. He had migrated to Belgium in 1914 under unknown circumstances and volunteered to fight in the war shortly thereafter. Imprisoned in Münster, Germany, he presented examples of drum language for the recording project of the Phonographische Kommission and translated these recordings into Bira. Especially the decoding of drum language was of interest for linguists and for the project of colonization. The examples Kudjabo had demonstrated appeared on a German radio broadcast in 1924, presented by the philologist Wilhelm Doegen. The first part of the chapter, which will be presented, discusses the researchers keen interest in drum language, the productivity of salvage ethnography (or musicology) and the omission of the intersubjective character of knowledge production.


Saarah Jaapie: From Local Sufi to International Hero - Remembering Shaykh Yusuf in Indonesia (working title)

In 1694, Dutch East India Company officials banished eastern Indonesian Sufi scholar and political leader, Shaykh Yusuf of Makassar to the Cape of Good Hope. Back in Indonesia, the Shaykh’s descendants and spiritual followers continued to produce and circulate oral and written texts about him, in a tradition that has continued well beyond his death. Drawing on ethnographic, oral history and archival research, in this paper I trace the diverse ways of knowing and recording Shaykh Yusuf’s life story in Indonesia, from the 18th century to the present. In so doing, I account for the historical moments, actors, and networks that gave rise to the production of new texts about Shaykh Yusuf, and the novel perceptions of him that these texts established. The paper addresses issues of hierarchies of knowledge, the decline of certain ways of knowing, and the translocal archive.   


Steven Kotze: Durban Local History Museums & University of Witwatersrand 

Neglected archive: Museum collections of locally forged hoes as evidence of contributions by women to the agricultural economy of the Phongolo-Mzimkhulu region prior to the twentieth century

A recent survey that I conducted in nine KwaZulu-Natal museums determined that field-hoes, called amageja in Zulu, constitute less than one quarter of locally forged metallurgical items in those archives, while the rest are weapons. Crucially though, only two displays related to either Iron Age history or the Zulu kingdom in the museums that were evaluated provide contextual information on field-hoes, in particular the gendered nature of how these artefacts were used in food production. In this paper I contend that gender-based divisions of labour in nineteenth-century African communities of this region, which largely consigned agricultural work to women, has also affected attitudes towards the tools they used. The endeavour of accumulating examples of African material culture is linked with Eurocentric impulses to curate identity, both for the collector and for communities that produced or used the artefacts. As groups of objects are generally assembled within collections in relation to other categories, Bourdieu suggested that the value of an artefact, or category of artefacts, can only be established after investigation of the “history of the procedure of canonisation and hierarchisation” of any particular object type. Investigating the place of amageja in museums’ hierarchy of collecting artefacts, this research thus considers the largely overlooked cultural and economic significance of such items, including evidence of attitudes towards agriculture preserved in oral testimony from African sources and Zulu-language idioms. This paper argues that examples of field-hoes held in these museum collections form an important but neglected archive of “hoe cultivation”, the form of subsistence crop production based on the use of manual implements, within the Phongolo-Mzimkhulu geographic region that roughly approximates to the modern territory of KwaZulu-Natal.


Nessa Leibhammer: Ancestors, Carvers & Owners: Headrests from Southern Africa

If the main complaint troubling the study of so-called material culture from the southern African region is the lack of historiography and biographical information then the project Ancestors, Carvers & Owners: Headrests from Southern Africa - A Tribute offers a palliative. Between the years 1988 and 2006 Mavis Duma and the late Anglican priest Clive Newman travelled to the areas of Msinga, Ladysmith and the foothills of the Drakensberg where they acquired headrests. Through interviews they collected meticulous information on the names and geographical locations of the owners and, when known, the carvers. They took photographs of owners with their headrests in their home environment. This makes for an unusually rich archive of visual and verbal information attached to the headrests with some genealogical evidence enabling us to trace ownership back to the early part of the 20th century. A publication is currently being planned that will include as much of the backstory and biography as possible. The question remains – is this enough to lift the material out of the stereotypical art/artefact trope and if not what would be needed to do so? 


Ayanda Mahlaba: To the Black Women We All Know Who Didn’t Die: Ordinary Black Women as Narrators of History

Doing research on your own family is not an easy task. It comes with numerous challenges that range from methodological to writing up the dissertation in a ‘scholarly’ manner. This piece provides a summary of my MA dissertation that is currently underway. The dissertation asks the question: what do the narrations of history by three generations of related kholwa women tell us about women’s narration of history? The main interlocutors for this research are three kholwa women from my maternal family, namely Gogo MaHlubi, Mamkhulu Ntombenhle, and Mam Phindile. My answers to these questions are that the narrations by these women allow us to see how women get marginalized, particularly the complexity of women’s marginalization in domestic settings, which is something that is not visible in men’s stories. As a response to their marginalization, these women use history as a resource and a lament while simultaneously bolstering their sense of self and making claims to political injustices. Each woman’s narrative brings to the fore a different form of marginalization and the strategies that they use to cope with it. As the women narrate, there is a production and transmission of history that takes place. The thesis as a whole is broken down into five chapters. Chapter one is an advanced version of the research proposal comprising the background of Mpolweni Mission, research questions, rationale, literature review, theoretical frameworks, methodology, ethical considerations, arguments, and chapter breakdown. Chapter two is on Gogo MaHlubi’s narrative. Chapter three on Mamkhulu Ntombenhle’s narrative. Chapter four on Mam Phindile. Chapter five provides the thesis conclusions.  For this piece, I will only provide an overview of the main arguments of each chapter and how they fit into the broader thesis. 


Grant McNulty: Building an archival exemplar for the past before European colonialism - the Five Hundred Year Archive exemplar

The Five Hundred Year Archive (FHYA) seeks to develop and promote understandings of the archival possibilities of materials located both within, and outside of, formal archives and to facilitate their engagement. It does this in order to stimulate research into the neglected eras of the southern African past before the advent of European colonialism, a period that is often considered to be without an archive. A key way of doing this is through an online digital archival exemplar, in the form of a website, that is capable of digitally convening visual, textual and sonic materials pertinent to these periods. As an exemplar it is not an archive that will exist in perpetuity but rather a sample or prototype designed to show what is possible. It is a conceptually innovative intervention geared to work across geographic, disciplinary and institutional boundaries, and to incorporate a variety of digital media including images, text and audio. This paper explores some of the challenges in translating the conceptual thinking of the FHYA project into the digital archival exemplar. These include institutional anxieties about digitisation and digital archival production, managing digital materials and metadata, the limitations of existing digital archival software – influenced by a normative notion of archive – and trying to overcome these through customisation.


Thokozani Mhlambi: Izinyanga Categories: In Search for a Method

This paper is concerned with sound in relation to the long-past in the area now covered by the province of KwaZulu-Natal. As part of the Recentring Afro-Asia Musical Migrations the region appears lacking without the elaborate collections of material culture found in places such as Mapungubwe, Great Zimbabwe, Mathopo Hills, etc. It is my attempt to propose sound perspectives as a method for understanding Afro-Asian interactions from the 13th century and later, and how the turn to sound can offer crucial insights as we produce knowledge.

In my paper, presented at the APC workshop in November last year, I presented the notion of ‘Izinyanga’ which I proposed, provisionally, as a term describing a cluster of craft/skilled work practiced in the area. This would include the skill of healing, song composition, metalwork and stonemasonry. A question that then emerged from my presentation was what role did the category of Izinyanga possibly play in the configuration of the social formations of the region in the 1700s, and perhaps even before. This question then instinctively led me to another one: what would I need to collect in order to answer that question, what method would I employ? 

I sensed, it was problem of archive; I liked the idea of collecting proverbs, and sayings in isiZulu which speak of –nyanga. And then to use this “cultural repertoire” (Hamilton 2012) to explore the configurations in how people relate to themselves and to each other through the –nyanga proverbs. My initial challenge of method, I thought would be assisted in the subject area of African Philosophy. But as soon as I delved into the literature on similar investigations based on other African (Bantu) languages, I encountered a methodological crisis. Paulin Hountondji suggests that the problem with such an analysis is the idea of a collective thought (philosophy) of the ‘Zulu’, the ‘Bantu’ that prevails in the interpretation. He says this line of reasoning has its origins in ethnology. He continues, authors of discourses were intent “on locating, beneath the various manifestations of African civilization, beneath the flood of history which has swept this civilization along willy-nilly, a solid bedrock which might provide the foundation of certitudes: in other words, a system of beliefs.” Hountondji concludes, that “Behind this usage, then, there is a myth at work, the myth of primitive unanimity, with its suggestion that in ‘primitive’ societies—that is to say, non-Western societies—everybody always agrees with everybody else.”

However, Gyekye, writing on the Akan language, has already successfully argued that to use these proverbs is not to say that they are composed collectively. He asserts that these were indeed composed by individuals who shared them with other individuals, in the process they under went embellishment and variation, but this did not alter the authorial specificity of the original composer. 

This paper tracks this development in my thinking on method for the study. 


Susana Molins Lliteras: Epilogue—Re-discovering ‘lost’ manuscripts

This paper is a draft of the new epilogue to my book project tentatively titled Archive in the Margins: The Fondo Kati and the Production of History in Timbuktu (comments/suggestions on the book title most welcome).  It is an attempt to bring the book to a close thinking about the larger issues that the case of the Fondo Kati reveals about history production in and about Timbuktu. 

Epilogue—Re-discovering ‘lost’ manuscripts

The epilogue reflects on another recent ‘discovery’ made in relation to a manuscript found in the Fondo Kati collection, purportedly one written by Gordon Laing.  This 19th century Scottish explorer is credited with being the first European to reach Timbuktu in the modern period and was subsequently killed two days after leaving the city.  In a bizarre and mysterious twist to the story, the copious journals recounting his journey were lost, burnt or stolen amid a web of alleged deception among Europeans trying to claim the prize of being ‘the first’ to arrive in the city.  A palimpsest manuscript of the Fondo Kati collection—English and Arabic superimposed—is again claimed to ‘solve’ some of these mysteries yet is largely unreadable.  Thus, this manuscript and its stories serves as a perfect lens through which to reflect on the larger framework and significance of the Fondo Kati within its context in Timbuktu.


Camalita Naicker: No Abstract Available


Rehana Odebdaal: Dissenting Voices 

This chapter, entitled Dissenting Voices, is the last content chapter of my current MA thesis, The Interactive University: A history of publicness at the University of the Witwatersrand 1922 -2015. The chapter focuses in on the Wits History Workshop as a case study of the emergence of a new kind of academic voice within the University. It tracks the development of the research group from its inception in 1977 until 1990, analyzing how shifts in content and subjects which the WHW promoted, as well as new forms of engagement between academics and communities outside the university contributed to the development of the idea of popular history in South Africa. The chapter argues that although WHW broke new boundaries in terms of expanding the reach of the University’s publicness in this period, the character of this publicness preserved many traditionally hierarchical power relationships. These relationships are, I argue, deeply intertwined with the University’s sense of itself and continue to act as a limiting factor to the potential publicness of the institution.


Tracey Randle: To be added.


Himal Ramji: HISTORY IN THE FUTURE TENSE, OR, A HISTORY OF ‘FUTURE’

This abstract is an attempt to flesh out some key ideas towards my PhD. At the moment, the project looks at the history of the concept of ‘future’ in African intellectual history. 

‘History’ is commonly taken as a discipline that is strictly concerned with the past. However, I argue that historiographies, histories, even the popular, undisciplined use of historical work, are always conducted with a particular imagination of future, which, in the particular work in question, is set as the future. In a similar fashion to the post-structuralist take on the concept of “truth” as plural, I take “future” as plural. It would not to do conduct an analysis of the future, but rather of future among many futures. 

To begin, I am looking at two pieces of key literature. The first is Kathleen Davis’ Periodisation and Sovereignty (2008), which looks at the dominance in Europe in the definition of a ‘global’ timeline, of past, present and future. The second is Karl Löwith’s Meaning In History (1949)particularly his critique of the religiosity implicit in Marx. 

We use a lot of future-oriented concepts in History (as well as in public debate, popular representation, science etc.). ‘Modernity’/ ‘modernisation’, ‘democracy’/ ‘democratisation’, ‘globalisation’, ‘liberation’, ‘emancipation’, ‘revolution’, ‘struggle’ – all of these are future oriented processes (generally the ‘-isations’), or imagined endpoints (generally those that end in ‘-y’). This project seeks to assess the application of these in history, whether implicit or explicit, and how these imagined futures shape the recreation of the past as ‘history’. 


Nashilongweshipwe J. Sakaria: Oudano Archives and Border Crossing in the Making of Resistance Culture in Katutura

A PhD Proposal

The proposed research project begins with mapping Oudano archives and praxis in the process of making resistance culture in Namibia today, particularly in Katutura township. Oudano is an indigenous concept that refers to the broad spectrum of performance. I identify bodies, rituals, places and institutional archives as all forms of Oudano Archives that contain creativity, memories, collections and pedagogical strategies of resistance culture from Namibia and Africa at large. I situate resistance culture and the education of it as generally disorganized, demobilized, depoliticized, unsustainable, displaced and fragmented in Namibia’s post-Apartheid cultural production, hence the need for this study. 

The site of this creative research is in making an interdisciplinary performance currently titled as Odalate Naiteke [opo kegonga kuye oshigongoti] which will be performed in Germany, South Africa and Namibia. This work is designed to transgress boundaries of contemporary cultural institutions by queering both colonial and nationalist archives while suggesting healing. The site of the research also extends into an underground public art intervention titled Operation Odalate Naiteke which particularly curates resistance culture activities in Katutura, Windhoek, Namibia. These activities come in form of intimate performances, visualities, writings, readings, tours and other forms of workshops. In this context, making revolutionary cultural work also means teaching and learning. Through the Critical Pedagogy concept of Border Crossing, this study identifies the performing bodies and performative interventions as the main objects of this research. Archives such as other embodied knowledges, found objects and spatialities such as Katutura are used to give a background to the subject matter at hand. 

Through a fluid Performance-as-Research methodology, both the performance and public art interventions will hopefully identify, reflect and unpack moments that clearly contribute to the practice, pedagogy and decolonization of culture in Namibia today. 


Regina Sarreiter: Traces of Stone Tools (PhD Thesis Chapter)

This paper presents chapter 4 of my PhD these on the relational lives of an ethnological collection between South Africa and Europe. It traces the story of the excavation and the dispersal of stone tools that have been collected around 1926 in KwaZulu-Natal by the German Benedictine missionary Father Meinulf Küsters, the Viennese anthropologist Viktor Lebzelter and the storeowner F.K.O. Bayer. The chapter engages with the meanings the objects gathered throughout their movings into divers institutions between science and mission. 

Commissioned in 1926 by the newly found Museo Missionario-Etnologico some of the stone tools eventually became part of the museum’s collection. The chapter looks into the transformation of the stone implements as objects of missionary-ethnological knowledge.

In a second step the chapter follows the career of the stone tools that remained in South Africa and became part of the archaeological collection of IZIKO. The subchapter engages with the histories of categorization within a South African archaeological discourse on pre-history and Stone Age. 

In a third step this chapter traces the fate of the stone tools that were sent to the Benedictine Missionmuseum in St. Ottilien in Germany where they were declared waste and were thrown away. What does this kind of categorization tell us about materiality in the context of a mission museum and the institution’s politics of value?  


Vibeke M. Viestad and Renée Rust

What happens with our understanding of the Bushman rock art of South Africa if we open the field of interpretations to a perspective of the bodily practice of dress? Could the art form that has been described as “essentially shamanistic” (Blundell et. al. 2010:2) prove to enlighten other and various aspects of personal and communal experiences? 

In this paper we share our first efforts of interpreting rock art imagery from two rock shelters of the Western Cape, which we argue should be associated with transition rites and the coming of age of young women and men, respectively. We base our interpretations on a sophisticated understanding of past Bushman dress practices, informed by a discursive reading of the Bleek and Lloyd archive of /Xam Bushman narratives that were recorded in the late 19th century (The Digital Bleek and Lloyd, Viestad, 2014, 2018). 

By reuniting two domains of archaeological research that often have been separate - the symbolic images of rock art, with the material culture of the body – we aim to show that the painted representations of dress and dressed bodies might contribute to enlighten our understanding of dress as a significant cultural practice among past Bushman communities and; to point out how keeping a perspective of dress and bodily practices in focus of rock art analyses might change or increase our understanding of the complex and often ambiguous images.


Lee Watkins: Connecting the decolonial moment with collaborative practices at the International Library of African Music (ILAM-RU).

I argue that it is through connectivity that an epistemology of music associated with the future of a music archive begins to emerge. In recent years there have been increasing demands for a decolonised curriculum at universities in South Africa. As yet there is little to no clarity on what a ‘decolonised curriculum’ means in real terms especially in the context of most music departments, who, with the support of university management, perpetuate a curriculum based on Euro-American art musics. These forms of music are subsidised at enormous expense to the revival and continuation of African traditional and African art music.

The demands for a ‘decolonised’ music archive such as ILAM were vociferous. ILAM and its founder, Hugh Tracey, came under the spotlight for his apparent complicity in advancing the interests of British colonialism. His recordings and collection of music instruments were deemed the ill-gained pickings of colonial privilege. Indeed, with these associations, reimagining the archive became a matter of urgency. In this paper, I will discuss the various means, from the digital to the personal, by which ILAM navigates its way towards a new reality. Through aspects such as music education, the repatriation of recordings, music research, performance and music pedagogy, within the context of decolonial praxis rather than rhetoric, I will argue for collaboration as a vital tool in forging a particular discourse of music which should address the demands for a decolonialised music culture at universities. The extent to which performers through ILAM’s network had resulted in connectivity among similarly enthused music scholars informs much of the discussion in this paper.


Leslie Witz: What is our history? The SACHED / Wits History Workshop Write Your Own History Project, the Lwandle Migrant Labour Museum and the University of the Western Cape Robben Island Museum Mayibuye Archive[1]

This is a conference paper that I delivered last year at the South African Historical Society conference and I am thinking about what I should do with it. At the time I was also thinking about the 40th anniversary of the Wits History Workshop which was being commemorated during the conference and I wanted to contribute to the discussion. Indeed, I appeared in one of the photographs on the commemorative exhibition in the corridors of the conference at the University of the Witwatersrand and I had somewhat mixed feelings about that. There was a sense of happiness in being appreciated and recognised for the work I had done as part of the History Workshop. But I was also uneasy that the History Workshop, which prided itself so much on rigorous engagement was indulging in a romantic endeavour that had not taken on board any of the many critiques of its work, some of it emanating from the Department of History at UWC. The paper you now have before you is quite experimental, auto-biographical and frankly may be a little self-indulgent. Maybe its best left to rest and not seek publication. Many of us have similar such writings. And if I do try and publish it, where? And what should be done to it for such a publication? Any ideas, suggestions and (damning) critiques are all welcome.


[1] Thanks to Noëleen Murray for comments and suggestions on an earlier draft of this paper.  


John Wright and Cynthia Kros: Chapter 3 - Moving beyond Master Narratives

In this paper we present a draft of one of the four introductory chapters to a book of essays that we are editing together with Mbongiseni Buthelezi and Helen Ludlow. At present we are working to the title Ezakudala / Tsa KgaleExploring the Archive of Times Past. The book is aimed at a non-specialist readership of senior undergraduates, teachers, educationists, heritage workers, museum workers, archival workers, and interested members of the public. It has 16 authors, who are working on some 20 essays. Most of the essays recount the personal engagements of the authors with a particular ‘source’ on the history of the KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo-Gariep regions in the two or three centuries before 1900.

We begin chapter 1 of the book by republishing an article written by Nomalanga Mkhize for Business Day in January 2016, headlined ‘Education for the elite lacks local intelligence’. We explain why the article excited us. In chapter 2 we discuss the notion of ‘history without social intelligence’ that Mkhize writes about, and why it is widespread in South Africa’s school education system. In chapter 3, which we here put forward for discussion, we begin discussing the importance of examining in detail the archive of evidence available on southern Africa’s history before colonial times as a way towards ‘history with social intelligence’. In chapter 4 we aim to extend this discussion by critically examining the notions of ‘tainted sources’ and ‘authentic sources’ via discussion of the notion of ‘entangled sources’.


APC MARCH 2018 WORKSHOP: COLLATED ABSTRACTS

Erica de Greef: Sartorial Disruption An investigation of the history and disposition of South African dress/fashion collections and associated museum practices, as a means to re-imagine and re-frame the sartorial in the museum

As my thesis reaches completion, I present here three components: namely the thesis introduction, four summaries of findings that relate to the trouser-led readings and the concluding chapter, which introduces six key observations that contribute towards a series of conclusions. 


Jo-Anne Duggan: The story must be told. The story needed to be told: Jenny Hobbs, ‘Thoughts in a Makeshift Mortuary’, 1985, and other visual traces

In this paper, I track the visual traces of the 1982 Raid on Maseru as they are brought into view by people required by the nature of their work, or compelled by memory, to write about the news photographs and film footage or their first-hand experiences of the scenes depicted in them.  Simply put I hope to build the argument that events leave visual traces. These may take the form of written descriptions, photographs of video footage, or memories which has been inscribed on an external surface. I want to understand how, when and why the visual traces emerge from the archive or are rendered invisible.


Henry Fagan: Interlocutors and Evidence: Reconstituting the Economic of the Zulu kingdom

This paper attempts to follow the examples set by John Wright and Carolyn Hamilton in their analyses of the circumstances and motivations surrounding James Stuart in the recording of his ‘Idea’. This paper will focus specifically on two of Stuart’s most prolific interlocutors1, Ndukwana kaMbengwana and Socwatsha kaPhaphu. While the contribution and context of each as already been thoroughly discussed by Wright, my analysis will consider their evidence within a more specific context. It is the aim of this paper to evaluate how useful these two interlocutors prove with respect to supplying reliable information relating to the economic functioning of the Zulu kingdom. Economic functioning is what I have described as the process whereby productive forces are enabled, reproduced, and performed. The era of Shaka’s and Dingane’s respective reins is the period in focus.


Katie Garrun: The Five Hundred Year Archive research project

The Five Hundred Year Archive (FHYA) research project focuses on the conceptual as well as technological task of re-curating objects representative of cultural history. The parameters of the study concentrate on a particular region and time period, these being the province known now as KwaZulu-Natal and southern Swaziland, and the time before colonialism. The limited scope was determined due to of the under researched nature of the area and time and the project’s aim of maximum complexity. 

The FHYA is undertaking the task of convening a selection of these historical objects by using specific technological interventions that hope not only to digitally link dispersed objects but also to in some ways disentangle these objects from their legacy of colonial classification. The project’s intention is to create a functional exemplar archive and promote enquiry into the long past. 

This paper serves as the foundation for the third chapter of my larger MPhil thesis and aims to describe the FHYA in depth. It sets out to tell the story of the Five Hundred Year Archive from its beginning phases in 2012 and its progress up until this point in 2018.


Carolyn Hamilton: Five Hundred Year Archive Draft Website Introductory Materials

On behalf of the FHYA I present draft text for two places on the FHYA exemplar. The text in each case serves to frame the materials presented on the FHYA and to explain our interventions. The first is for the landing page. It fills in a block that is nominally assigned the status of “Welcome”.  The second is for the live-link “button” “About the FHYA” which is visible on every page. The text is updatable and will be updated as the status of the exemplar shifts over the rest of the year.


Rachel King: 'Were they half civilized?' Knowledge, reminiscence, and archaeological thinking in early (1866-1913) ethnologies of Lesotho

This paper draws on an epistolary relationship between two early ethnologists of Lesotho (D.F. Ellenberger and J.M. Orpen) to explore a habit of researching and writing about the past that I refer to as 'thinking archaeologically'. That is, using the material world as a proving ground for hypotheses about human society across long periods of time. Through their decade-long correspondence as they assembled their respective ethnological works, Ellenberger and Orpen repeatedly turned to traces of abandoned homesteads on the Highveld, toponyms, and geographic features to provide 'factual' anchors for oral histories that they believed were biased or incomplete. Their mode of 'thinking archaeologically' thus gave traces of the past a particular authoritative weight often at the expense of their interlocutors, and often arriving at conclusions that modern archaeology has proven erroneous.  

In examining how these intellectual practices unfolded, I consider how scholars have imagined archaeology and landscape as evidentiary sources, and what the consequences of this have been for southern African pre-colonial studies. I submit that 'thinking archaeologically' in the early days of anthropology has left a legacy of presuming too much about what settled life physically looked like in the southern African interior, and assuming that population movement was always a symptom of distress rather than a political choice. In doing so, I hope to claim a space for a particular sort of archaeological approach to words and things in describing how knowledge in and about southern Africa's past was produced.


Nessa Leibhammer: Light: Unpacking Metaphors of Representation

Light in pictorial representation plays an important, but little recognised, role in the visual lexicon of Western imaging and imagining. While positioning it in a broad overview of images, this chapter will look, in particular, at how it contributes to the transmission of subliminal messages about subject peoples in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and, more recently, how it is used as a ‘decolonising impulse’ in contemporary South African art. My original interest in light began when I studied the way archaeologists communicate knowledge through pictographic representation. This explains why the first examples in this chapter are archaeological ones.


Gerald Machona: My Story of Lobola

This presentation is an extract from the first chapter of my thesis, which examines the intricacies of participating in lobola across national and ethnic boundaries that separate Zimbabwe and South Africa. My study attempts to understand the assumptions about gender, ethnic and national identities that are embedded in lobola processes today; and if the ‘tradition’ is continuously re-inventing itself, how this change is being negotiated. This first chapter aims to contextualise my experience of this rite of passage, through a narrative story-telling approach. By introducing the reader to the themes, events and complex relations which governed the lobola proceedings, I intend to establish a foundation for deeper analysis and critical reflections in the chapters to follow.


Ayanda Mahlaba: Gogo’s Narratives

Every story has a protagonist who is central in how every event unfolds. In the case of this research, this protagonist is my grandmother, since I would not have decided to dedicate time in understanding the histories of my people and my ‘community’ had it not been for the riveting stories she would narrate to me when I was growing up and in later years when I matured into a young adult who was introduced to the rich world of Black women’s feminist imaginations as enabled by the world of the academy. Therefore, it is imperative that before I go on to focus on the other two main women interlocutors, I focus on her first. This early chapter of my MA thesis is concerned with two things.

First, I partake in doing the memory work of exploring the stories Gogo told me before (when I was a child and prior to my decision to undertake this research).

Second, I then move on to piecing together the stories that came out after when I devoted time to make sense of what I consider to be narratives intricately tied to my being, that of my forebears, their roots, the multiple places and positions they occupied in their lifetimes. This chapter is descriptive in nature, and fluidly – albeit confusing at times – moves in time and space as I have made the political choice of troubling the notion of ‘linearity’ since the conversations that I recall from my childhood were structured in non-linear forms. It will be clear from this chapter that there are no stark differences between the before and after narratives since Gogo has been consistent in how she narrates her life story and the various actors, places and forces that have characterised it. Where differences exist, I will highlight them accordingly.


Thokozani Mhlambi: Broadcasting Development in SA

This paper tracks the development of the SABC from its founding moments in 1936 to the transitional moment of 1993-1996, when it was now required to define a vision for a plural society. The SABC was the first institution to undergo racial and cultural transformation towards the new democratic dispensation. The bulk of the material is on the early years of broadcasting (1940s), as it is the period that it less known in the mind of the public. In the founding moment the SABC tried to unify the disparate interests of white Afrikaans and English populations. In the transitional moment, the SABC attempted to integrate the interests of all its citizens. In their unifying of interest, the founding moment and the transitional moment are similar. The transitional moment became so crucial to how we know broadcasting and the SABC today. The account is not chronological; it inserts my own personal memories of radio in order to reflect on this archive of broadcasting history.


Jacqueline Maingard: Black film audiences in South Africa, 1920s to 1960s 

I had originally planned that in this workshop (March 2018), I would present the structure and key arguments of my monograph that draws together my research into black cinema audiences in South Africa, 1920s to 1960s. My aim was to further refine the shape of the book on this period in South Africa’s film history and the ‘construction’ of black audiences. The critical feedback I received in the November 2017 workshop (based on draft notes towards the Introduction), helped focus the work on black identities and histories as the central through-line. This has been fundamentally significant to the shape and focus of the monograph. In the light of this I have seen the forthcoming March 2018 workshop as especially helpful in presenting the full reach of the monograph, based on rough drafts of chapters I have recently written. I had hoped that I would elaborate the content and arguments of each chapter, thereby explicating the focus of the monograph as a whole.

But this was not to be, and I am now instead presenting for the workshop a recently written contribution for an edited volume on Mapping Movie Magazines [Biltereyst, D. and Van de Vijver, L (eds)], under contract with Palgrave Macmillan, which is under review as part of the aforementioned volume. I will also incorporate some of the material and the research that informs it into one of the chapters of my book. The chapter in my book will focus on film criticism as it relates to African / black audiences in the period mainly from the 1920s to the 1950s. Presently the chapter is primarily on Zonk! African People’s Pictorial in its early years of 1949 to about 1951. I would like to expand the material on Drum in the 1950s. And I would like to contextualise this chapter in terms of film criticism – limited as it was, but nevertheless significant – that includes some of the writing of Sol Plaatje, H.I.E. Dhlomo, Alex la Guma and possibly others, and that appears in the wider African / black press particularly from 1915 onwards. This will link very well with the chapter in the book on Sol Plaatje and his touring cinema exhibition of the early 1920s (draft presented at APC workshop April 2017).


Litheko Modisane: The media and the Black Pimpernel

The paper examines the media reports and interviews on Mandela in the period of his underground years- May 1961 to August 1962. In the paper I show that the production and circulation of the ‘Mandela myth’ can be traced to this period and not the late 70s’ as is often claimed. I show the ways in which this mediation of Mandela, uneven though it was, and his relative absence from public life have mutually reinforced the power and reach of his persona in the public imagination precisely because he was not always actually publically present, but circulated through mediated channels. The paper suggests that absence or invisibility of public figures ought not be simply viewed as a disabling state but as a powerful resource in the making and sometimes consecration of public figures.  


Abigail Joy Moffett: Global commodities, local interactions: Stringing together cowrie shells in the southern African past 

Cowrie shells, the common name for the species Cypraea moneteria moneta and Cypraea moneteria annulus, have been collected, modified, traded and consumed globally for over 10 000 years. Cowrie shells appear in the southern African archaeological record from the 7th century AD, and were used by southern African communities in a variety of ways up to the present. Their appearance in the first millennium AD, in close correlation with other items traded through Indian Ocean exchange systems, has afforded them the common designation of ‘trade’ or ‘prestige’ good. This designation implies a host of assumptions related to the value of cowries. Given the connection between cowries and the Indian Ocean exchange system, as well as their long duration of use by southern African communities, it is surprising that very little research has attempted to interrogate the valuation of cowries in southern African contexts through time. This review of the distribution and depositional contexts of cowries from a variety of archaeological and historical contexts from the Early Iron Age (CE 200-1000) until the present reveals some of the ways southern African communities incorporated cowries into clothing, adornment, ritual and daily practice.

Exploring the continuity and change in cowrie use over time facilitates a discussion around the relationship between the properties of the shell, the inter-artifactual domain in which they interacted and the symbolic universe of their users in the creation and negotiation of their value. While the smooth white exterior of the cowrie, with its vulva shaped orifice, likely facilitated a symbolic link to fertility and procreation, the shell nevertheless interacted with and was shaped by a symbolic universe conditioned by its users that was contingent to contextual historical realities. The continuity and change in the valuation of cowries through time and in space cautions for a continued awareness of the negotiated, transient manifestations of value global commodities might have had in local contexts.


Lebogang Mokwena:  Along the Museological Grain: An Exploration into the (Geo)Political Undercurrents in a South African Textile Exhibition

The exclusion of women in museums – whether art, ethnological, or historical – has received critical appraisal by feminist scholars, particularly in the global north, with fewer examples from the global south. It is for this reason that the Isishweshwe Story: Material Women? at the Textile Gallery in the Slave Lodge, Iziko Museums is so fascinating, not least given the rarity of women-centred exhibitions. Through an assessment of the exhibition's representation of Southern African countries, in which the textile has been used, this paper, counter-intuitively foregrounds how the Isishweshwe Story exhibition, ostensibly concerned with the history of the isishweshwe textile in Southern Africa and its use by various groups of women, conceals even as it operates within the logics of a geo-politically ambitious – and not always altruistic – post-apartheid state. Through a critical assessment of the geo-political undertones in the exhibition, this paper invigorates the emerging literature on the sociology of heritage and the museum by shifting the attention away from the usual emphasis, in museum studies, on the internal politics of nation (re)imagining and nation-building. Instead, it recasts the debate to emphasise the outward-orientations of the nation-state and how these can be discerned or fostered on the museum platform when it is deployed as a space of cultural diplomacy. 


Susana Molins-Lliteras: The making of a local historian in Timbuktu? Maḥmūd Ka’ti, historical notes, marginalia and the Fondo Kati

Maḥmūd Ka’ti’s name is popularly known as one of the foremost historians of the Western Sudan, author of one of the famed historical chronicles, the Tārīkh al-fattāsh (TF). This view is now discredited in specialist circles, with Nehemia Levtzion’s seminal 1971 article demonstrating that Ibn al-Mukhtār was the author of the 17th c. chronicle, and recent research by Mauro Nobili and Shahid Mathee showing that the 1913 edited version and translation of the chronicle is composed of two distinct textual entities, the chronicle by Ibn al-Mukhtār and a 19th c. pseudo-epigraphic work written by Nūḥ b. al-Ṭāhir, and apocryphally ascribed to Maḥmūd Ka‘ti.1 Despite this evidence however, Maḥmūd Ka’ti continues to be regarded as a local historian, and his name continues to be associated with the chronicle, substantiated by the recent translation of the TF into English by non-specialists, to give just one example.

Even in specialist circles, one particularly striking notion that endures is the idea of Maḥmūd Ka’ti as a writer of historical notes, which contributed to his descendant authoring the TF.

This paper tackles this conception of the ‘historical note’ in relation to the purported marginalia of Maḥmūd Ka’ti found in the Fondo Kati’s manuscripts. This library, named after our personage, claims to be the collection of manuscripts begun by Maḥmūd Ka‘ti and his Andalusí father, and augmented and preserved by their descendants up to the present.

The paper analyses some of Maḥmūd Ka‘ti’s marginalia in this collection and determines its central aims: firstly, to establish the chronology of his life, with the particular purpose of placing him in the entourage of Askiya Muḥammad. Secondly, to affirm Maḥmūd Ka’ti’s scholarly credentials and finally and most crucially, to establish him as a writer of historical notes, which would later be used by others in the family to write the TF. The paper shows the usefulness of the idea of the ‘historical note,’ arguing that even in the face of scant evidence, it continues to contribute to the making of Maḥmūd Ka‘ti as “the first historian of the Sudan,” as he is sometimes called.

Footnotes

1 Nehemia Levtzion, “A Seventeenth-Century Chronicle by Ibn al-Mukhtā r: A Critical Study of Ta’rī kh alfattā sh,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 34–3 (1971): 571–593; Mauro Nobili and Mohamed Shahid Mathee, “Towards a New Study of the So-Called Tā rī kh al-fattā sh,” History in Africa 42 (2015): 37-73.

2 Christopher Wise and Hala Abu Taleb (trans.), Ta’rīkh al fattāsh: The Timbuktu Chronicles, 1493– 1599 (Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 2011).


Nashilongweshipwe Mushaandja: PhD proposal: Between Oudano Archives and a collection of new works of Resistance Culture 

This research looks at approaches of finding inspiration through archives of Oudano (performance) in the making of resistance culture in Namibia today, particularly in Katutura township. The project identifies bodies, places as well as classical archives as fundamental sites of memory and production of resistance culture in Namibia today. It situates protest performance as a disorganized, unsustainable, displaced and fragmented art form in Namibia’s post-Apartheid cultural production. This research project will thus be interested in developing a new interdisciplinary collection of artwork that aim to organise, curate, narrate, perform, write and teach resistance culture for Namibia today. The research is located in the performing bodies as well as the found objects and spaces as both methods and subjects of the study. It is informed by an intersecting theoretical framework of performance, decolonial and memory studies. As a performance as research project, this art collection will produce cutting-edge theatre, music, film, texts and visual arts works that will contribute to the discourse and development resistance culture in Namibia. 


Camalita Naicker: Chapter for PhD Thesis: The Afterlives of Marikana in Popular Politics in South Africa

The chapter begins with a description of the Marikana settlement, its inception and events that has won it a reputation of violence and resistance in the media over its last almost four years of existence. When the land was occupied over the period of a year and a half from April 2013 to August 2014, the response to news articles reporting on Marikana, was that poor squatters had come from the Eastern Cape to occupy the land, including Western Cape Premier Helen Zille who is infamous for calling people who move from the Eastern to the Western part of the Cape ‘refugees.’ Residents of Marikana 2, where this research is situated have been part of ongoing clashes with police, neighbouring communities and between themselves.  The court case that resulted from these periodic evictions spanned a period of four years with a landmark judgement handed in August, 2017 over the settlement collectively called Marikana which in the last four years had grown from a small group of shelters to span a ‘medium-sized town’ of approximately 60 000 residents. In August 2017, Western Cape High Court Judge Fortuin ordered the City of Cape Town to enter into negotiation with the owners of the land to buy the property, or failing which to expropriate it as provided for in the constitution.

This chapter attempts to do three sets of things, the first is to map the processes that led to creation of the settlement that today comprises Marikana 1 (or Old Marikana), Marikana 2 (or new Marikana) and the Rolihlahla settlements which in the court papers and the media are collectively referred to as the Marikana Informal Settlement. Secondly, and relatedly the chapter shows how the court cases were able to define and hone in on Marikana purely through legal and liberal parameters that was premised on the balancing on different claims to rights and protections by the state under the constitution, I will argue that this does little to expose the internal dynamics at play in Marikana, or to provide insights into contesting political practices, the legal and institutional and the popular and non-institutionalised realm of the political and how these two work together and sometimes contradict each other. Lastly, the chapter argues that far from the current attempts to view Marikana as another in a long line of land occupations and service delivery protests, there is a far longer and deeper history that might, as High Court Judge Gambler stated in his judgement in March 2014, give residents of this area a sense of ‘déjà vu.’ Whilst the judge was referring to a series of raids conducted by the City of Cape Town (CoCT) which were “reminiscent of the well documented operations conducted by the apartheid government in the 1980s in areas such as Crossroads and KTC. Units of heavily armed men clad in bullet-proof gear and protective helmets went on to private property and systematically demolished informal structures,” I show that there are there are far more sediments of Crossroads in the realm of the political that is ignored within the liberal framing of this space and the short hand references to urban conflict. Particularly it argues that there are, in addition to new dynamics and processes, historical continuities with the women’s organising committees so particular to Crossroads history of resistance and also the use of rural experience and political practices to politically organise within the settlement reminiscent of older committees during the 1970s and 1980s. These historical connections are multiple and inform the overall insights of the thesis. 


Rehana Odendaal: Academic Freedom & Publicness at Wits 

These two chapters are currently imagined as Chapter 7 and Chapter 8 of my MA Thesis, titled The Interactive University: A history of publicness at the University of the Witwatersrand 1922-2015. The chapters have emerged out of the single paper presented at our November workshop in order to enable a clearer chronological and thematic reading of the history of Academic Freedom and its relationship to Publicness at Wits University. Chapter 7: Wits and contestations around Academic Freedom in the 1950s provides an overview of how the concept of Academic Freedom developed at the University in relation to the emergence of the Extension of University Education Act 49 of 1957. It uses four major moments of the University’s protest against the Act to explore how the mechanisms through which Wits’s publicity was performed. Chapter 8: Continuing the Conversation on Academic Freedom looks at the afterlife of the events discussed in Chapter 7, with the intention of highlighting how the narrative of Academic Freedom and “the open universities” continued to have a significant impact on the public imagination of both Wits as an institution and the concept of Academic Freedom in the 1960s and 1970s.


Himal Ramji: Popularising the precolonial: some thoughts towards a paper

My short piece for the APC workshop will consist of some thoughts towards a publishable article based on the research and findings of my MA thesis, Producing the Precolonial: Professional and Popular Lives of Mapungubwe, 1937-2017. 

The thesis comprised three parts: first, the production of archaeological knowledge and discourses about Mapungubwe from the 1930s until the 2000s; second, the introduction of Mapungubwe into the national public-school curriculum; and third, the move towards the popularisation of Mapungubwe beyond the scope of academic discipline and institutionalised education, in novels, documentaries and the arts (particularly sculpture). 

There were several findings from the research, some revolving around the way that history, and most particularly how history of times before European colonisation, has been used over time towards political (or ideological) ends. During apartheid times, Mapungubwe reproduced old myths of a savage yet golden and wondrously explorable, discoverable Africa. In post-apartheid times, Mapungubwe has been used in the reproduction of an image of a southern Africa that is replete with kings, elite spatial politics, a general (pre)capitalist economy, both internally and externally, and was involved in world trade – it is globalist, pre-capitalist, golden, on a trajectory towards an industrialised society. In short, Mapungubwe is set up, in contemporary times, as an almost natural precursor to contemporary conditions. 

But these are all very particular findings. In the case of the paper for potential publication, I want to look at the more general takings from my research. I want to consider how we ‘treat’ history, both as professional discipline and public discourse. I want to consider the cleavage between professional knowledge-making and popular knowledge-making, and how this has previously inhibited much research into the reimagination of the past before colonisation, and, further, how my research – the method employed in my thesis – shows that there is critical need for analytic models within the social sciences which allow us to consider more seriously, and in a less off-handish manner, the knowledge and histories produced in popular fields – in film, music, and novel forms. And then, beyond this, how can we bring together, within a single study, the knowledge produced in the professional and the knowledge produced in the popular. 

Taken a step further, I want the short piece for the workshop to allow some room for the plotting of my PhD thesis, which will hopefully take the work of my masters a step further. For this, I want to consider the possibility for presented fragmented moments of history, rather than attempting to produce a narrative of an event that aims to fit a larger grand narrative or truth discourse. In a sense, I want to make an attempt to produce public, popular history in a different way – to translate what has been locked in technical, disciplinary ‘jargon’ (for lack of a better word), into language that is accessible, educational, but also geared towards popular consumption. 

I am thinking here about a Mapungubwe in comics (the idea here I base on Luke Molver’s 2018 publication, Shaka Rising), and Mapungubwe in film (a step beyond Mandla Dube’s 

2017 documentary, Echoes of the Valley, and beyond the written form of Zakes Mda’s 2013 novel, The Sculptors of Mapungubwe). But these are only ideas, in their most formative stage. For the most part, I wish to consider – with the help of the APC cohort – what of my thesis I can convert into a 20-or-so page publishable article.


Tracey Randle: Curating the Museum Van De Caab Display

This forms a fourth draft chapter for my thesis. The initial brief to the work scope to the Solms-Delta project centred on conducting research into the history of the farm and surrounding region, including the pre-colonial, archaeological and social history. This task was never divorced from the main outcome of the project: that this research be used for “the purpose of establishing a museum…the subject of which will be the social history of the wine history in South Africa, using the estate as a “case study””. Despite its somewhat academic focus and methodology, the project always had as a goal and end product a visual display, rather than a publication or book. It will be argued, however, that certain modalities of a book, would come to shape the display. Archival, archaeological and academic modes of representation found their ways into the display in numerous ways. The Museum van de Caab additionally embodies a very specific locus, as a site museum on a Cape wine farm that would additionally come to shape the form and function of the exhibition. 


Emma Sandon: Book proposal: Films with a Mission 

I am presenting my book proposal for an edited collection of essays, Films with a Mission. Many English-speaking churches, Protestant and Catholic, adopted film in the first half of the twentieth century to support and spread their missionary activities across Africa, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia and Australasia. The book will bring together 12 key contributions on films, film collections and film activities by different missionary societies. The essays, written by contemporary film scholars and historians, will outline some of the key issues and questions in historically assessing some of the missionary collections found in film archives. The book will encompass particular films as well as drawing on comparative approaches to interpreting the collections. It will examine how denominations invested in the new medium of film to promote conversion, recruitment and to raise funds for their missions, as well as to compete with other Christian churches, including foreign missions from Europe. The volume will also look at the growth of interdenominational collaborations, particularly by Protestant churches, in film production and cinema exhibition to promote the spread of Christianity, primarily through the International Missionary Council (IMC). The book will thus assess the significance of the take up of the new mass media technology of film by a range of Christian missionary societies as an evangelical strategy in the modern period. 


Leslie Witz: Remaking the chameleon: a history of history in South African museums 

In this paper, which is a draft of the second chapter of my book tentatively titled Museumania, I want to present a possible trajectory of the ways that the category of history was employed in museum policy and practice in South Africa from the nineteenth century. My intention in doing this is to begin thinking through different possibilities that were available for the institution named and claimed as a museum in post-apartheid South Africa. One of these, which I argue became the basis of official policy, claims to revise history by remaining bound to a past of empirically verifiable facts that have to be amended, added to, deleted and reinterpreted, in order to reconstruct new and different pasts. This I argue is the way that museums have shifted to the category of heritage. Another, which is less prominent, seeks to scrutinize and destabilize the categories of knowledge formation and then to make these apparent. This approach attempts to constantly question the disciplinary foundations of history and museological practice. These are of course neither all the variations of history in museums in post-apartheid South Africa, nor is it possible to mark a single museum as typical of either (though there are some very close approximations). Outlining these possibilities enables one to think through a history of history in museums, the different ways histories are re-imagined in museums and importantly the varieties of practices that are set in place, disbanded and re-conceptualised.


John Wright:  Tiptoeing through the Ages: a historian ventures in search of archaeologists’ takes on ‘social relations’ 

This paper is a draft – incomplete and tentative – of part of the first section of chapter 5 of a book that I am writing with Carolyn Hamilton titled Making Identities in KwaZulu-Natal: Politics and History in South Africa, 1750-1850. Chapter 1 takes the form of a conceptual introduction, chapters 2 and 3 make a critical examination of the historiography (respectively before and after 1960), and chapter 4 makes a critical examination of the major sources of evidence. Chapter 5 (which I am authoring in the first instance) aims to set the scene for the four narrative-based chapters that follow. We still have to find an (imaginative) title for it: its theme is ‘Politics and the making of identities in KwaZulu-Natal before 1750’. In the first section my primary concern is with archaeological evidence and the ways in which it has been interpreted. The broad historiographical background will have been covered in chapter 3: in chapter 5 I focus specifically on three linked questions.

When did archaeologists in southern Africa generally, and in KwaZulu-Natal in particular, start thinking systematically about what they have called ‘social relations’ as distinct from technologies, environmental change, and patterns of subsistence and settlement? How far back in time have they found material remains that they interpret as evidence for social relations? And what have they actually said from this perspective?

In a second section of the chapter, I intend to examine how far the evidence from archaeology meshes with the evidence that can be gleaned from documentary sources (mainly accounts written by or about the survivors of shipwrecks on the coast of south-eastern Africa in the period 1550-1750) that touch on the nature of political organization in KwaZulu-Natal in this period. In a third section I will assess what evidence can be found on the nature of politics and of identity-making in this period through critical readings of the six volumes of the James Stuart Archive (1976-2013), Magema Fuze’s The Black People and Whence they Came (1979 [1922]), and Alfred Bryant’s Olden Times in Zululand and Natal (1929).