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Itshelo, amatshelo, namatshelwana: Umzamo wokuthola igama lesiZulu lokuchaza ‘inoveli’

14 Jun 2021 - 10:30
Izincwadi zezindaba zokuqanjwa zibizwa ngamanoveli esiZulwini okungeliwumfakela. (Image courtesy of Gülfer Ergin https://unsplash.com/@gulfergin_01)

Wade Smit

Izilimi ziguquka njalo. Futhi izinguquko zolimi azikwazi ukulawulwa nakumiswa neze; ziyenzeka nje ngoba nabantu bayaguquka ekuhambeni kwesikhathi. Ngenxa yokuxhumaxhumana kwabantu abaningi emhlabeni abakhuluma izilimi ezahlukahlukene, lonke ulimi emhlabeni lunamagama adabuka kwezinye izilimi. NgesiZulu lawo magama abizwa ngamagama ayimifakela. Kwesinye isikhathi amabizo esiwasebenzisa siwasebenzisa singazi ukuthi avelaphi. Kukhona amagama esiwaziyo anjenga no-“shintsha” (“change”, isiNgisi -> isiNtu), “loot” (“loot”, isiHindi -> isiNgisi), “safari” (“safar”, isiArabic -> isiNgisi), “lemon” (“līmūn”, isiArabic -> isiNgisi), “muti” (“umuthi”, isiNtu -> isiNgisi), “ubuntu” (“ubuntu”, isiNtu -> isiNgisi). Azipheli impela izibonelo. Kodwa kwesinye isikhathi lawa magama ayimifakela adla amagama (akade abe khona phambilini), noma isikhala lapho okungaba khona igama elidabuka olimini lwalo, njengotswayi / itswayi (“usawoti”), iphehlwa (“ibotela”), uMasingana (“uJanuwari”), ingqayi (“ifilimu”), isithuthi (“imoto”). Ezinye zalezi zibonelo ngamagama amadala, ezinye ngamasha; zonke zikhombisa ukuthi lonke ulimi lunezindlela zokuchaza yonke into, noma kubonakala ukuthi igama elifanele liswelekile.

Njengomuntu othanda ukubhala nokufunda izindaba (eziqambayo kanye nezibikayo), igama engidibana nalo kaningi yi-“noveli” ne-“novelana”. Njalo uma ngilifunda lelo gama ngifikelwa yisifiso sokuthi kungaba khona igama lesiZulu lokuchaza “incwadi equkatha indaba eqanjiwe”. Manje ngibe ngikhuthazwe wukuphuma kwengosi yami esizindalwazini se-Archive and Public Culture Research Initiative (esihloko sayo sithi “#isiPhambanakabili: An isiZulu term for ‘hashtag’ and the question of new words”1) ukuzama ukuqamba ibizo elisha elingamela lona elithi “inoveli”. Maningi amagama engiwenze, njenga nalawa: “ixoxomqulu” (ixoxo + umqulu), ixoxoncwadi (ixoxo + incwadi), “incwadindaba” (incwadi + indaba), “indabancwadi’, “ingxoxoncwadi” (ingxoxo + incwadi), “umtshelondaba” (ukutshela + indaba), “isitshelo’, kanye “nomtshelo”. Kodwa ekugcineni ngaze ngathanda elilodwa; “itshelo” nje. “Itshelo” ngilithande ikakhulukazi ngenxa yezizathu ezintathu:

  1. Ngoba linomsindo omnandi, omfishane, nokhumbulekayo. Inoveli (noma itshelo) lidalwa njengobuciko kuqala, hayi njengomsebenzi wezohwebo, ngakho lifanele ukubizwa ngegama elizwakala ngomoya wokudala nokudlala.
  2. Ngoba leli igama kade libe nenye incazelo ecishe ifana nayona ebengiyicinga: “itshelo – izindaba ongenalo iqiniso lazo, inzwabethi, itsheno, amahemuhemu.” 2 Kuyo yona incazelo kuyabonakala ukuthi ayisho “amanga” ubala; iyakhuluma ngokungazi iqiniso lendaba ethize. Phela, enovelini (noma etshelweni) uqobo, umfundi kanye nombhali ngeke bazi onke amaqiniso ezindaba – bayoqagela njalo bedla amathambo ekhanda ngawo kuze kufike usuku lwabo lokugcina. Lokho kuyintokozo yasekufundeni; kumenza umuntu acabange ngezindida zombhalo ukuthola inqwaba yezimpendulo-mbumbulu ezisakwazi nokho ukukhulisa ingqondo yakhe ngokumcabangisa. Konke lokho kudalwa wukuthi inoveli/itshelo lineqiniso elingazeki neze.
  3. Isizathu sesithathu sincane nje; indaba yiyona otshela umuntu ngayo, ngakho isiqu segama “itshelo” sivela kulelo elithi “ukutshela” ngoba sikhombisa ukubaluleka kobudlelwano obuphakathi komuntu otshela kanye nolalelayo. Futhi kuyiloko kutshela okuwuhlobo lobuciko. Okusho ukuthi igama uqobo lwalo linayo incazelo eqondakalayo esiZulwini kunegama eliwumfakela “inoveli” okumsuka walo usemagameni esiLatini athi “novellus” (“izinto ezintsha”, “okusha”) ne-“novus” (“-sha”, “-luhlaza”). Kuyasiza ubucikomazwi ukusebenzisa amagama anezimpande kulo lolu limi olusebenzisayo kanye namagama adabuka kwezinye izilimi. Iciko liphumelela uma linazo izinketho eziningi ukubenza ngazo ubuciko balo. Vele-ke okusalayo yitshelo – into otshela umuntu ngayo ngendlela ethile, kube ngomlomo kumbe ngombhalo.

Itshelo, amatshelo, namatshelwana kungase kube ngamanye amagama amasha nje okuchaza inoveli, amanoveli, namanovelana, hayi awodwa. Ngoba phela ekuqambeni amagama amasha (nasekupheni amadala nezincazelo ezintsha) kukhona isilingo sokusho ukuthi “Manje leli gama elisha lingcono kunawona amadala, ngakho abantu abasawasebenzisa amadala bangenalo ulwazi oluphelele.” Cha, ukuyala kanjalo wukuzama ukulawula okungalawulwa. Ulimi luwuhlobo lobuciko oluphilayo oludinga ukuba ngaphandle kwemingcele nokubiyelwa. Amagama amasha angamathuba nje (kumuntu ofuna ukukhuluma noma ukubhala ngobucikomazwi) okuphawula ngezinye izindlela ezimfanele nangendlela enambithekayo. Futhi njengoba ayinketho nje, kuyoba abantu abazolenza igama libe ngelisetshenziswa noma elishiyelwe emuva lingasetshenziswa.

Okusalayo vele wukubona ukuthi engabe kungaba khona umehluko phakathi komthelela wamagama “inoveli” ne-‘tshelo” emibhalweni ekhiqizwe ngaphansi kwalawa magama amabili. Kusukela isikhathi sama-‘noveli” okuqala eMzansi Afrika (njenge-Mhudi kaSolomon Tshekiso Plaatje, Nje Nempela kaBenedict Wallet Vilakazi, Story of an African Farm kaOlive Schreiner, nezinye) imibhalo yababhali baleso sikhathi yaze yasungula umlando othize wombhalo eNingizimu Afrika, okusasiko lamanoveli nababhali bawo kwelakithi. Okungukusho ukuthi lelo siko lazithuthukela ngaphansi kwegama “inoveli” nokuhamba kwalo esikhathini.

Phela imibhalo engabe yenziwa ngaphansi kwegama “itshelo” nayo iyozenzela elayo isiko lokubhala elifika nohlobo oluthile lwalo. Amatshelo nawo ayizincwadi zezindaba zokuqamba njengamanoveli ncamashi, kodwa umehluko ungadalwa ekuhambeni kwesikhathi nasekushicileleni izincwadi ezingamatshelo namatshelwana kuze kusungulwe isiko elisha lombhalo phansi kwegama lawo. Lolu guquko lusezandleni zombhali futhi luncikene nesinqumo sakhe sokusebenzisa igama letshelo nxa ebhala indaba ende. Kodwa isinqumo sokuqala singesomshicileli okumele anqume ukuzibiza izincwadi ngamatshelo ngoba nguyena okhiqiza izincwadi nokwazi ukuzidayisa phansi kwalelo gama. Isinqumo esinje singathatha eside isikhathi ngempela futhi singase singenzeki neze. Ngoba ukucabanga nje nokuqamba imibono yoguquko kufanele kuqale njengokudlala, hayi njengenhloso yempoqo.

Futhi, ukuzama inhlanhla uqambe igama noma incazelo elisha kufanele uzikhumbuze ukuthi ungase utshelwe ngabanye ukuthi kungalungile owake wakwenza ngoba akuzwakali kahle noma kukhona okungcono. Kumnandi ukuzwa nalokho, ngoba phela itshe lokuqala esivivaneni lingase lingami kahle likhishelwe elinye eliqinile, kanti kusangelokuqala eladala umqondo wokwakha leso sivivane. Ngamanye amagama, ukukhipha okungasebenzi kahle kuyinyathelo ebalulekile ekwakheni okusha, kodwa yileyo mizamo eyahluleka eyathola amabombo okuqala.

Ake ngigcine manje ngamazwi kaSibusiso Nyembezi esesingenisweni sencwadi yakhe Isichazamazwi Sanamuhla Nangomuso:

‘Ubuwula banamuhla yinhlakanipho yangomuso kanti futhi inhlakanipho yanamuhla ubuwula bangomuso.” Ngaleso sizathu kukhona namagama kuleli bhuku abangahle bawangabaze abanye ukuthi afakelweni, akusona isiZulu esihle. Kepha la magama ayasebenza noma siwangabaza. Esikucabanga ukuthi esikhathini sethu kungenzeka kubonakale kukuhle ezizukulwaneni ezizayo.

1 Wade Smit, “#isiPhambanakabili: An isiZulu term for ‘hashtag’ and the question of new words” Archive and Public Culture Research Initiative, December 2019, accessed 27 Feb 2021, http://www.apc.uct.ac.za/news/hashtag

2 Sibusiso Nyembezi, Isichazamazwi Sanamuhla Nangomuso (Pietermaritzburg: Reach Out Publishers, 1992)